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Oclobei, 5 196! 


Robert J. Fleming, Jr., Governor-President 

VV. P. Leber, Lieutenant Governor 

Will Arey 
Panama Canal Information Officer 

| *~=^ | 


Official Panama Canal Publication 
Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z. 

Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, C.Z. 

Publications Editors 
Robert D. Kerr and Julio E. Briceno 

Editorial Assistants 
Eunice Richard, Tobi Bittel, and Tomas A. Cupas 

On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers, Retail Stores, and the Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each. 

Subscriptions, $1 a year; mall and back copies, 10 cents each. 

Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights. C.Z. 

Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights, C.Z. 

Une J^and J\eunlted 

IT IS DOUBTFUL if any bridge in the world surpasses the 
Thatcher Ferry Bridge as a uniting element between: Two parts 
of a country, two continents, two peoples, and, soon, the two 
parts of the world's greatest highway system. 

Nothing, perhaps, could better express the historic setting for 
the October 12 dedication and opening of the huge new bridge 
linking the Americas. 

The above words, from Elmer B. Stevens, bridge project 
resident engineer, stress the true meaning of this new major world 
traffic link. 

The bridge also is viewed by Mr. Stevens as "a fitting and 
proper sequel to the slogan coined during Canal construction 
days, The Land Divided, the World United.' We can now say, 
The Land Reunited' with the secure knowledge that this fact 
further enhances world unity, and at a time when such unitv 
is sorely needed." 

News and picture highlights of bridge history may be found 
on the following pages, along with some sidelights provided by 
Mr. Stevens in an article on page 7. 

Techniques, technology, and equipment have improved vastly 
since the days of Canal construction. But the kev roles have ever 
been those of the men and women of the Isthmus. Magnitude 
of the jobs faced, and conquered, is evident in every picture and 
every account of the bridge project. 

The date of the ceremonies is a memorable one for more than 
one reason. It was on an October 12 that Christopher Columbus 
first saw American soil. 


The Bridge by Night 3 

Mr. Thatcher 3 

Free, Permanent Transit 4 

Dream of Years Realized 5 

Tribute From an Ex-President 6 

First-Hand Report, With Sidelights 7 

Pictorial Progress Report 8-11 

Dollars Flow to Panama 12 

Good Will Ambassadors 14 

Geologists Try Fins 16 

School Calendar 18 

Safety 19 

Canal History 20 

Anniversaries 21 

Promotions and Transfers 22 

Shipping 22 

This issue of The Review will reach a far broader audience than 
the average edition. Extra copies of The Review and of The 
Review En Espanol have been ordered to meet expected demands. 
Among these is a request from the Foreign Office of the 
Republic of Panama for extra copies for distribution to embassies, 
consulates, and schools. 

ABOUT OUR FRONT COVER-The commemorative 
medallion for the Thatcher Ferry Bridge dedication 
October 12 is flanked by an aerial view of the bridge itself 
showing dramatically the linking of the banks. The reverse 
side of the medallion portrays a map of this part of the 
hemisphere, with the Isthmus at its center, and dedication 
date. Aluminum pocket pieces l 1 ^ inches in diameter, 
miniatures of the medallion, have been ordered as 
souvenirs, along with decals reproducing the face of 
the medallion. 

October 5, 1962 

The Bridge 

by Night 

Dedicated - To Service 

THE ONLY surviving member of the 
Isthmian Canal Commission will be 
present October 12 at the ceremonies to 
be held to dedicate the impressive new 
bridge which bears his name. 

He is Maurice H. Thatcher, a man 
who celebrated his 92d birthday in 
August and whose enthusiasm and 
vitality won for him the unofficial title 
of the "First Governor of the Canal 
Zone." He was, in fact, the youngest 
member of a group of extraordinary 
men which included Col. W. L. Sibert, 
Joseph Bucklin Bishop, Adm. H. H. 
Rousseau, Col. Harrv F. Hodges, Col. 
David D. Gaillard,' Col. William C. 
Gorgas, and Col. George W. Goethals. 

Mr. Thatcher served as Chief of the 
Department of Civil Administration 
which controlled Canal Zone civil affairs 
and included the representation of the 
Isthmian Canal Commission in its rela- 
tions with the Republic of Panama and 

the foreign diplomatic missions. He held 
this position from May 13, 1910, until 
August 8, 1913. 

His name has long been associated 
with matters relating to the Isthmus of 
Panama. On two occasions he has been 
president of the Gorgas Institute and 
was one of the founders of the "Panama 
Society" of Washington. In addition, he 
is closely connected with the Isthmian 
Historical Society, which was organized 
at his suggestion. 

For five consecutive terms, from 1922 
until 1933, Mr. Thatcher was elected to 
the U.S. House of Representatives from 
the district of Louisville, Ky. It was 
during these years that he introduced 
legislation which created the ferry serv- 
ice across the Canal later known as 
Thatcher Ferry, made possible construc- 
tion of a road connecting the west ter- 
minal of the ferry with the town of 
Arraijan, and established the Gorgas 

Maurice H. Thatcher. 

Memorial Institute of Tropical and 
Preventive Medicine. 

Tireless in his efforts on behalf of the 
(See p. 19) 

The Panama Canal Review 

And by Day 

Free, Permanent Transit 

THE $20 MILLION high level bridge 
across the Panama Canal at Balboa, a 
U.S. Treatv commitment, assures free, 
permanent transit of vehicles and pedes- 
trians from one bank of the Canal to 
the other. 

Such a bridge was one of the principal 
stipulations of the Remon-Eisenhower 
Treaty and Memorandum of Under- 
standing signed between Panama and 
the United States in 1955. 

The US. Congress, in 1956. approved 
an appropriation of S20 million for 
the design and construction of the 
permanent bridge across the Canal. 

This bridge replaces the Thatcher 
Ferry service, which had been used the 
past 30 years as a means of communica- 
tion between the east and west banks 
of the Canal. 

Construction started on December 23, 
1958, with an official ceremony in which 
former President of Panama Ernesto de 
la Guardia, Jr.. and former Canal Zone 
Governor \V. E. Potter participated. 
Other Panamanian dignitaries present 
included the Minister of Public Works, 
Roberto Lopez Fabrega. Silver shovels 
were used to turn the first shovelfuls of 
earth at the base of Farfan Hill. 

It was not until September 1959, that 
actual work began. The midget dredge 
Mandinga began excavation of a 
channel parallel to the location of the 
bridge piers, to facilitate access to the 
piei sites. 

The bridge was designed bv Sverd- 

rup, Parcel & Associates of St. Louis, 
Mo. Governor Potter named a construc- 
tion advisory board whose members 
were Ralph A. Tudor, structural engi- 
neer; Dr. R. P. Davis, structural engi- 
neer; F. C. Turner, chief engineer in 
the office of public roads; E. B. 
Burwell, Jr., geologist; and Aymar 
Embury II, architect, all experts in their 
special fields. 

The contract for construction of the 
substructure was awarded in 1959 to 
Fruin-Colnon International, S. A., and 
LeBoeuf and Dougherty, Inc., a joint 
venture from St. Louis, Mo. Some diffi- 
culties were encountered by the sub- 
structure contractor in satisfactorily 
completing the two largest cofferdams 
erected at the water pier sites. 

In order to excavate to firm rock and 
pour concrete footings "in the dry" for 
the water piers, cofferdams of the open, 
internally-braced single-wall tvpe were 
used. All piers and abutments were 
completed in November 1961. 

Foundations of the bridge consist of 
reinforced concrete abutments, with the 
water piers resting on firm rock and the 
land piers on clusters of cylindrical 
reinforced concrete caissons which 
extend down to firm rock. 

The largest contract in connection 
with the bridge, for the superstructure, 
was awarded in February 1960, to John 
F. Beaslev Construction Co. of Dallas. 
Tex., on a bid of $9,199,000. The con- 
tract included furnishing structural steel 

manufactured in West Germany as a 
joint venture by four firms. 

The steel started to arrive on the 
Isthmus in June and July of 1961. In 
August, a crew of 75 specially trained 
steel construction men arrived from the 
United States. These men, skilled in the 
work of erecting bridge spans, did the 
actual work of joining 15,000 tons of 
steel with bolted connections. 

Fabrication of structural steel for the 
bridge was completed in Germany in 
January 1962, and by the end of that 
month all fabricated steel, with the 
exception of some minor parts, had been 
shipped to the Isthmus. 

The bridge is 5,425 feet long, with 
the longest single span, directly over the 
Canal channel, measuring 1,128 feet. 
The highest portion of the bridge is 
384 feet above the average level of the 
Canal. The lowest portion of the struc- 
ture is 201 feet above the Canal at high 
normal tide. 

The bridge has four traffic lanes and 
a pedestrian walk, with three traffic- 
lanes and a pedestrian walk on the 
approaches. The roadway is of 7-inch 
reinforced concrete, which rests on steel 
beam and girder framework. 

The lighting system provides 
1,600,000 "lumens" of light from 80 
mercury vapor lights, 16 aerial and sea 
navigation lights, and 3 flashing hazard 
lights, one at each end of the bridge, 
another in the center at the highest 
point of the bridge. 

October 5, 1962 

stream of tyeari -Now (Reality 

across the Canal appears to have been 
seriously considered as far back as 1909, 
when sites at Empire, Culebra, Gold 
Hill, and Paraiso were considered. 

Further talk of a permanent bridge 
was postponed by actual construction 
of a temporal)' suspension bridge at 
Empire with a 12-foot roadway onlv a 
few feet above the 95-foot level. 

Here is the sequence of historical 
events which led to construction of the 
new Thatcher Ferry Bridge linking the 

1913-Serious consideration again 
was given to a permanent bridge or 
tunnel and several comparative esti- 
mates were made. Greater concern with 
early opening of the Canal without 
risk' of further delay appears to have 
caused sidetracking of the project. 

1929-The bridge-tunnel project 
broke into print again in Panama Canal 
files and newspapers, but quite likely 

the financial crisis in that year stopped 
anv further consideration at that time. 

1937-Project revived by president 
of Panama Automobile Club, Leopoldo 
Arosemena. Pressure and interest by 
various agencies on both sides of the 
line continued from this date to the 
immediate pre-war period by which 
time a tunnel was being seriously- 
considered for military reasons. 

1941-In this year, negotiations with 
an architectural engineering firm were 
actually under way for design of a 
tunnel. Thev were suspended by official 
directive early in 1942 because of 
the war. 

1942— Miraflores swing bridge was 
opened in June but it was never in- 
tended as a substitute for the permanent 
high-level fixed bridge or tunnel, having 
been built primarily for third locks 
construction. However, once built, it 
undoubtedly has had a delaying effect 

on the main project. The traffic it now 
carries could not have been handled by 
the existing ferry. 

The General Relations Agreement 
between the United States and Panama 
effected bv an exchange of notes signed 
at Washington May 18, 1942, contained 
a number of commitments on the part 
of the United States. 

The agreement was related to, and 
was, in effect, the counterpart of an 
agreement covering the lease of defense 
sites signed at Panama on the same 

Point 4 of the 1942 Agreement, con- 
cerning construction of a tunnel or 
bridge over the Canal at Balboa, C.Z., 
commits the United States to build such 
a bridge or tunnel when the World 
War II emergency has ended. 

1942-1954-The prospects of a 
tunnel, and occasionally a bridge, came 
up from time to time during this period, 
originating both from political sources 

Historic moment: Bridge sections joined May 16, 1962. 



and from private interests soliciting the 
opportunity to perform the design and 

1954— The Governor concluded, after 
review of the manv studies and argu- 
ments, that a bridge was superior to 
a tunnel. The Chiefs of Staff of the 
U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, and the 
Navy all concurred. 

1955— New estimates were made of 
a high-level bridge at Balboa, of a tvpe 
and span lengths differing from previous 
estimates. A bill was presented to Con- 
gress authorizing the construction of 
a bridge, at an estimated cost of 
$20 million. 

1955— Construction of a bridge across 
the Canal at Balboa again became a 
commitment of the United States under 
the Eisenhower-Remon treatv of friend- 
ship between the United States and 

1956-On July 23, of this year, Pres- 
ident Eisenhower, on a visit to Panama, 
signed a bill authorizing and directing 
the Panama Canal to construct, main- 
tain, and operate a bridge over the 
Canal, at Balboa. A supplemental appro- 
priation providing $750,000 with which 
to start design and engineering on the 
bridge was signed bv the President on 
August 28, 1957. 

1957— On November 5, after a thor- 
ough canvass of all eligible interested 
firms, a contract was signed with the 
firm of Sverdrup, Parcel & Associates 
of St. Louis, Mo. to make a preliminary 
engineering studv, and to present esti- 
mates and schematic designs of several 
types of bridges. 

The following were selected in 
December to constitute a technical 
Board of Consultants for the bridge 

Roland Parker Davis, M., ASCE, 
Dean Emeritus, West Virginia Uni- 
versity, Consulting Bridge Engineer. 

Aymar Embury II, Consulting Archi- 
tect, of New York. 

Edward B. Burwell, Jr., Consulting 
Geologist, and Chief Geologist, Office 
of Chief of Engineers. 

Ralph A. Tudor, M., ASCE, one-time 
Chief Engineer of San Francisco Bav 
Toll Crossings, Under Secretary, De- 
partment of Interior, Washington, D.C. 

E. L. Erickson, Chief, Bridge Design 
Division, Bureau of Public Roads, 
Washington, D.C. 

1958— Representatives of Sverdrup, 
Parcel & Associates met in Balboa with 
the Board of Consultants and with offi- 
cials of the Panama Canal April 10, 
and presented the results of their pre- 
liminary studies. Design recommended 


. . . %Vell-3)e3ervea ZJribute . . .' 

Dr. Ricardo J. Alfaro, former President of Panama (1931-1932), now Justice 
of the International Court of Justice in The Hague, Holland, wrote the 
following letter to the Honorable Maurice H. Thatcher commenting on an 
article which appeared in a leading United States newspaper regarding the 
Thatcher Fern- Bridge. 

12315 Stoney Creek Road, 
Rockville, Md., December 6, 1961. 

My dear Governor Thatcher: 

Please find enclosed the clipping you kindly handed me day before yesterday, 
which I am returning to you with my thanks. I have read it with utmost interest 
and pleasure and I am very happy that your signal services to your country 
and to the cause of Pan-Americanism are duly recognized by a paper of such 
great prestige as The Christian Science Monitor. 

The parallel between yourself and your famous fellow Kentuckian Henry 
Clay is both just and accurate. If Clay is entitled to be remembered as the 
pioneer of Pan-Americanism in the United States, you have no lesser title 
to the recognition, the gratitude and the respect of all the peoples of our 
continent and particularly of the people of Panama for your magnificent work 
on behalf of good understanding and real friendship between the Americans 
of the North and the Americans of the South. 

Giving your illustrious name to the colossal bridge that will re-establish 
continuity in the land divided by the Panama Canal is an act of justice and 
a well-deserved tribute. The Thatcher Bridge will be the culmination of a noble 
thought which had its first expression in the Thatcher Ferry. I congratulate 
you upon the honor you have received and my highest praise goes to the 
Congress and to President Kennedy for their worthy action in honoring you. 

Amelia joins me in congratulating you and in expressing best wishes for 
your prompt and complete recovery, and with renewed assurances of my 
admiration and esteem, I remain 

Very sincerely yours, 

The Honorable 

Maurice H. Thatcher, 

The Somerset, Washington, D.C. 

R. J. Alfaro. 

by Sverdrup, Parcel & Associates was 
approved by the Board, and the 
approximate alignment selected. 

A contract was signed with Sverdrup, 
Parcel & Associates in April to furnish 
complete design for the type of bridge 

1958— Construction work on the 
bridge was formally initiated in Decem- 
ber in a ceremony attended bv Panama 
President Ernesto de la Guardia, Jr., 
and Canal Zone Governor W. E. Potter. 

1959— First actual work on construc- 
tion of the substructure took place in 

Contract for the substructure was 
awarded to Fruin-Colnon International. 
S. A., and LeBoeuf and Dougherty, a 
joint venture, from St. Louis, Mo. 

1960— Contract for the superstruc- 
ture was awarded to John F. Beaslev 
Construction Co., of Dallas, Tex., in 

1961— During June and July steel 
began arriving from West Germany. Bv 
November all piers and abutments were 

On October 25 the last yard of con- 
crete was poured on the substructure, 
which was completed November 4. 

1962-A 70-foot steel beam was 
raised into place May 16 bv a floating 
crane, joining the two sections of the 
bridge while tugs tooted and Canal and 
bridge workmen cheered. Gov. Robert J. 
Fleming, Jr., accompanied bv other offi- 
cials and newsmen, watched from the 
tug San Pablo. 


Octoher 5, 1962 

And Some Bridge Project Sidelights 


By Elmer B. Stevens 
Bridge Project Resident Engineer 

ON THE NIGHT of September 8, 1962, 
Thatcher Ferry Bridge blossomed out 
with all its roadway lighting plus the 
aircraft warning lights atop the high 
arch. At this stage it could be compared 
with a fine lady primping for a party, 
complete except for the final touches of 
"putting on her face." 

All the graceful curves are now out- 
lined with the proper degree of daring 
and discretion, essential fastenings 
secured, and the "tout ensemble" neatly 
poised on high heels. Just as our lady 
is now readv for the mirror of the 
public eve, which reflects sidelights and 
highlights that she may or may not 
suspect, our bridge is nearly ready for 
the same critical scrutiny. 

The hard work now lies behind and 
the lighter moments of the party lie 
just ahead. 

Just as our lady awaits her escort at 
this stage, it should prove interesting 
to pause and reflect on some of the 
lighter moments that led to the present, 
as well as to confirm some of the vital 
statistics such as those that the dress- 
maker had to know, when she fashioned 
the alluring creation for the public 
to see. 

Tackling the latter first and leaving 
the spice for last, a word may still be 
in order about the type of structure. 
Bridges are generally identified bv the 
structural type of the main span, and 
classified as to size by the clear length 
between piers of that span. 

This frequently leaves much unsaid 
about the balance of the structure which 
sometimes exceeds the scope of the 
main span. The three main spans of the 
Thatcher Ferry Bridge are properly 
considered as a unit and are accurately' 
described as a cantilever, tied-arch 
combination. The approach spans are 
of the "deck" type (roadway on 
top) and are cantilever, simple-span 

In technical parlance, the tied-arch 
of the central span is called a "sus- 
pended" span because of the manner 
by which it is attached to the adjacent 
cantilevers, but this does not make it 

a "suspension" bridge, since that term 
refers to the type that is supported 
by heavy main cables, rather than 
trusses, draped over high towers on 
the main piers. 

In terms of size, Thatcher Ferry 
Bridge is one of the largest "South of 
the Border" but does not rank high 
among the large bridges of the world. 
It is properly compared in size only 
with other cantilever bridges and on 
that basis, its main span of 1,128 feet 
is less than two-thirds that of the world's 
largest cantilever bridge, across the 
St. Lawrence River at Quebec, Canada, 
and built many years ago. 

Its total weight of structural steel, 
about 14,000 tons, is less than one- 
quarter that of the huge Quebec bridge. 

ELMER B. STEVENS, resident engineer 
on the $20 million Thatcher Ferry Bridge 
Project at Balboa, is retiring early in 1963 
after a quarter century of service with the 
Canal organization. From the time he 
graduated from the University of Vermont 
with a civil engineering degree until he 
joined the bridge project, he has spent a 
good part of his time designing and build- 
ing bridges. He designed the Gatun Locks 
swing bridge and made the cost estimate 
for the bridge at Balboa on which the 
appropriation was based. 

Its height of 201 feet above high water, 
however, places it among the highest 
in the world— for which the height 
was dictated by shipping requirements 
rather than natural terrain at the site. 
None is known to be higher in that 
artificial respect, though many bridges 
have greater clearances (height) that 
were dictated by the terrain at 
their sites. 

Whatever the Thatcher Ferry Bridge 
lacks in size among the world's large 
bridges, however, it amply compensates 
as a symbol of unity. It is doubtful if 
any bridge in the world surpasses it as 
a uniting element between (1) two 
parts of a country, (2) two continents, 
( 3 ) two peoples and, in the not-too- 
distant future, (4) the two parts of the 
world's greatest highway system. 

The bridge is a fitting and proper 
sequel to the slogan coined during 
Canal construction days, "The Land 
Divided, the World United." We can 
now saw "The Land Reunited" with 
the secure knowledge that this fact 
further enhances world unity, and at 
a time when such unity is sorely needed. 

At this point a fast curve is justified 
by the fact that articles have already 
been written on the sublime and the 
technical features of the bridge and we 
will now throw the switch that illumi- 
nates some of the lighter moments of 
the construction period. 

There was the day, for instance, 
when an inspection part)' from the 
"Heights" arrived at the site of Pier 4 
a few minutes ahead of the scheduled 
start of the footing pour. The concrete 
plant on shore had already been 
cranked up and the first delivery, con- 
sisting of a large bucket of grout 
(sand, cement, and water without huge 
aggregate— fortunatelyl ) was already on 
the way. 

Told that they had only a few 
minutes to make their inspection, the 
party decided to take their chances and 
descended to the bottom of the coffer- 
dam. In the meantime the grout arrived 
and the bucket containing it was hoisted 
over the receiving hopper, some 70 feet 
above the exposed rock within the 
cofferdam. At this point a workman, 

(See p. 10) 

The Panama Canal Review 

TO 384 FEET 

Type of Bridge: 

Three main spans— Combination 
cantilever-tied arch. 

Approach spans— Combination can- 
tilever-simple spans. 

Main' span: 1,128 ft. 

Clearance over water at mean high 
tide: 201 ft. 

Maximum height: 384 ft. 

Traffic lanes: 

On three main spans: 4. 
On approaches: 2 ascending and 
1 descending. 

Lighting: Mercury vapor. 
Pedestrian walkway: One, 4 ft. wide. 

Design Data 

Loading: 20-ton trucks followed by 
16-ton trailers. Also, 92-ton special 
load at slow speed. 

Wind: 70 m.p.h. 

Earthquake: 5 percent of dead load of 

Foundation pressures: 

Pier 5: 15 tons/sq. ft. 
Other piers on rock: 20 tons sq. ft. 
Caissons under land piers: 30 tons 
sq. ft. 

Longitudinal force: Friction at expan- 
sion bearings— 20 percent of dead 
load supported. 

Design criteria: Standard specifications 
for highway Bridges of the Amer- 
ican Association of State Highway 

Ice Cream Afloat 

ONE OF THE features of the British 
Shaw Savill round-the-world passenger 
liner Northern Star is an American-type 
soda fountain bar, equipped with the 
latest gear from the United States. The 
bar, which made a hit with the hundreds 
of young people traveling on the vessel, 
is located at one end of the sun-bathing 
deck near the approach to the three 
attractive swimming pools. 

The tile-lined pools were built to 
provide bathing facilities for all types 
of swimmers from the paddlers and non- 
swimmers to the experts. 

Channel clearing enabled work barge to reach pier sites. 
Pilings framework for cofferdam construction. 

October 5, 1962 

Lacy network of steel inside cofferdam for pier construction. 



Total length 12,986 ft. 

Excavation 589,000 cu. yds. 

Fill 688,000 cu. yds. 

Spoil 444,000 cu. yds. 

Paving— Concrete . _ 59,000 sq. yds. 

Paving— Asphalt 3,700 sq. yds. 


Concrete 31,500 cu. yds. 

Cement 52,000 bbls. 

Reinforcing steel _ 1,100 tons 
Caissons, 36-in. 

diameter 7,500 lineal ft. 

Structural steel- 
Carbon 6,250 tons 

Structural steel- 
Alloy 7,450 tons 

Cable suspenders _ - 50 tons 

Cast steel 150 tons 

Reinforcing steel . _ 625 tons 

Total steel -- 14,525 tons 

Concrete 6,000 cu. yds. 

Steel floor grating _ _ 16,000 sq. ft. 

Handrails 12,008 lineal ft. 

Paint 20,000 gals. 

Bolts, high tensile. 350 tons. 

Floating cranes' booms towered 400 feet high. 

Land Reunited 

(Continued from p. 7) 

later professing innocence concerning 
the party below, opened the bucket 
gates and down went the grout. 

Almost as if blown up by the same 
force that sent the grout down, the 
inspection party appeared top-side, 
bringing most of the grout back up 
with them on their persons. Soberly 
assured of an error, the inspection was 
called off, the inspectors went home, 
and the pour was resumed. 

It is a matter of pure coincidence, of 
course, that the bucket operator got 
a 10 cents per hour raise starting that 
day, and that the Contractor's Project 
Manager was heard to remark that it 
was the first time in his life he ever had 
six inspectors lined up in his sights for 
one pull of the trigger! 

There also was the time when a 
waterborne concrete delivery unit— an 
"LCM" with concrete buckets in this 
case— was being charged under the large 
collection hopper at Dock 7. When the 
buckets were filled, a malfunction of 
the hopper gates prevented their closure 
and the concrete kept on coming. The 
LCM operator began receiving shouted 
and conflicting instructions in two 

Before he could decide which order 
to follow, the LCM capsized and sank. 

(Note— Fortunately this occurred 
toward the end of the pour and a "next" 
LCM was standing by to finish the 
deliveries. ) 

On other occasions, heavily-loaded 
delivery units capsized en route from 
Dock 7 to pier sites and the buckets 
had to be fished out from Captain Jack's 
harbor to prevent the possibility of their 
becoming a part of a ship's "wheel." 

Lighter moments on the superstruc- 
ture seemed to center around the period 
when final closure was being made on 
the big arch, although one of those 
moments was not so funny for the oper- 
ators of a fat pool, based on the time 
of closure, who had to explain the cir- 
cumstances under which the pool went 
to a high PanCanal official who later 
awarded an honor (?) to one of the 

There was the iron-worker, for 
instance, who, in the absence of flags, 
wanted to place one of our ladv's 
garments on the ceremonial (closing) 
piece of steel. 

Through the entire construction 
period the keen interest of the public 
has been an inspiration, even if at the 
same time its occasional skepticism has 
been a problem. During the trying 
period when cofferdam plans were 

being revised "in mid-stream," it seemed 
difficult to assure the public that "there 
will be a bridge" and that the steel parts 
that later went together so rapidly and 
well, were, even then, being rolled, 
fabricated, and shop assembled. 

The work going on at that very time, 
far from the site of the bridge, was the 

Keep Moving! 

TRAFFIC FLOW over the new 
Thatcher Ferry Bridge is expected 
to increase to 10,700 vehicles a day 
within the next year. 

Approximately 8,200 vehicles now 
utilize the swinging bridge at Mira- 
flores Locks and Thatcher Ferry 
facilities each day. 

Currently, 2,300 vehicles travel 
daily between the City of Panama 
and the Interior of the Republic. The 
remaining 5,900 vehicles crossing the 
Canal are cars, trucks, and buses 
traveling between points bordering 
the Canal. 

work that made the future rapid and 
spectacular erection possible. 

Later on, as the two huge cantilevers 
were being erected from the main piers 
toward the mid-channel, it was evident 
that the public was experiencing more 
agony than the erectors as to whether 
or not the spans would meet, being 
unaware of the built-in devices that 
guaranteed a perfect closure before the 
first panel was ever cantilevered out 
over the water. 

Finally, there was the staunch belief 
among the devoted public that the iron- 
workers were predominantly Indians, 
this being the result of past publicity 
given to a group of Mohawk Indians 
who are high iron-workers in the New 
York area. 

Efforts were made to advise the 
public that these local "Indians" were 
predominantly converted cowpunchers 
from the plains of Texas. Some progress 
was being made until a photograph was 
published showing some iron-workers 
in action, including their names on the 
caption of the picture. All efforts at 
explanation were suspended when one 
of the names proved to be "Rain- 
water"! Sometimes you have to let the 
Public win! 

Piers, abutments completed in November 1961. 

10 October 5, 1962 

Board To Be Here 

TRANSFER OF THE regular October 
meeting of the Board of Directors of the 
Panama Canal from Washington, D.C., 
to the Canal Zone makes it possible for 
the directors to be on hand for both 
the Thatcher Ferry Bridge dedication 
October 12 and the Stevens Circle 
dedication October 13. 

Board members are the honorable 
Cyrus R. Vance, Secretary of the Army, 
stockholder; Stephen Ailes, Under Sec- 
retary of the Army and board chairman; 
Fred' Korth, George W. Ball, Clarence 
D. Martin, Jr., J. Kenneth Mansfield, 
John W. Martyn, C. Robert Mitchell, 
Walter J. Pearson, Howard C. Petersen, 
Dr. Charles J. Zinn, and James A. 

Mr. Ailes, who, as a boy, knew Mr. 
Stevens very well, will be the speaker 
for the Stevens Circle ceremonies. 

A joint Republic of Panama-United 
States of America Thatcher Ferry Bridge 
Dedication Committee is handling 
arrangements for that event. 

With Will Arey, Panama Canal Infor- 
mation Officer, as chairman, other 
members are: Camilo Levy Salcedo, 
representing the Republic of Panama; 
Carl E. Davis, representing the U.S. 
Embassy; Lt. Col. Loehr M. Rigby, Jr., 
representing the Caribbean Command; 
and the following Panama Canal 

Paul Ficzeri, Jr., Kerry B. Magee, 
J. M. Ruoff, N. B. Davison,' W. E. Burns, 
L. B. Magnuson, Jerry Senear, Loron 
B. Burnham, Eleanor Burnham, Ivan 
D. Hilliard, E. M. Browder, Jr., Dwight 
McKabney, John P. Smith, Jr., and 
Richard C. Sergeant. 

Elmer B. Stevens, bridge project res- 
ident engineer, has served as special 
advisor to the committee. 

Shown as the first shovelfuls of earth marking start of construction of the bridge were 

turned December 23, 1958, are (left to right) former U.S. Ambassador Julian Harrington; 

former President Ernesto de la Guardia, Jr., of Panama; Roberto Lopez Fabrega, former 

Minister of Public Works; and former Governor W. H. Potter of the Canal Zone. 

Part of crowd gathered at groundbreaking ceremonies. 

The Panama Canal Review 


$75 Million Flows Into Panama Economy 

DIVERSIFICATION was the key to 

the impact of Canal Zone dollars on the 
economy of the Republic of Panama 
during the past fiscal year. Expenditures 
for goods and services increased nearly 
9 percent over the previous year, the 
total exceeding $75 million. 

No single major project or handful 
of projects were responsible for the 
increase, as the gains spread into many 
nooks of Panama's economic life. 

The amount going into the Republic's 
markets through direct purchases made 
in Panama by U.S. Government agen- 
cies, contractors, and private organiza- 
tions was up 14 percent to nearly 
$23 million. 

Net income to residents of Panama 
employed in the Canal Zone rose to 
nearly $33 million for a gain of almost 
8 percent and estimated expenditures 
in the Republic by residents of the Zone 
topped S17 million for an increase of 
nearly 6 percent. 

Supplementing the pattern of Pan- 
ama's school expansions for develop- 
ment of human resources, on-the-job 
training of residents of the Republic on 
Panama Canal projects and with Zone 
agencies has enabled many of them to 
move higher up the ladder in private 
enterprise fields through their increased 
technical knowledge. 

Available figures show employment 

of residents of Panama by U.S. agen- 
cies in the Zone and by contractors 
working for Zone agencies topping 
14.000 for a rise of nearly 700 compared 
with a year earlier— and total wages in 
this bracket above $30 million for an 
increase of nearly $3 million. 

This helped measurably toward the 
Republic's gross national product ad- 
vance of 8 percent and per capita 
income gain of 5 percent for the last 
calendar year. 

Dock and ship workers job reclassifi- 
cations early this year resulted in wage 
increases of more than 20 percent for 
them and in April approximately 10,000 

Panamanian employees of the Panama 
Canal got increases ranging up to 
29 percent for skills recognition and 
providing more employee incentive. 

Food products purchases by all 
Zone agencies in 1961 amounted to 
$2,721,000 for the calendar year 1961, 
for a gain of approximate!) $400,000. 
The trend is upward and a substantial 
increase is expected for 1962. possibh 
topping $3 million. 

Cains were listed in fixe of the eight 
brackets (food products, beverages, con- 
struction materials, consume] items, 
services, and contracts) for a net in- 
crease of $350,000-plus in Panama 


, , , 1961 1962 

Estimated expenditures made in Republic of Panama by 

residents of the Canal Zone. __ $16,316,000 $17,252,000 

Estimated net income to residents of Republic of Panama 

employed on the Canal Zone 30,491,000 32,877.000 

Direct purchases made in Panama by U.S. Government 

agencies, contractors, and private organizations ! 20,140,000 22,959,000 

Annuity paid to Panama 1,930,000 1,930,00(1 

Total $68,877,000 $75,018,000 

1 Excluding purchases made in Panama by contractors for use in military and private 
projects in the Canal Zone. 

Panamanians hold key posts in many fields. 


October 5, 1962 

Canal purchases during the 1962 
fiscal year. 

In May, under an agreement with 
the National Cattlemen's Association of 
Panama, the Panama Canal began buy- 
ing 10,000 quarts of raw milk per week 
from Panama producers. It is delivered 
to the Mount Hope plant for processing 
and bottling. This has meant an average 
flow of about $8,000 a month into the 
Panama economy and it appears likely 
that milk purchases from Panama 
sources will be approximately doubled 
next vear. 

This is contingent upon the arrange- 
ment proving satisfactory during the 
initial 12-month period. To date it has 
proven satisfactory and if supply sur- 
vives drv season problems there appears 
little doubt that the purchases will be 

With all Panama Canal and Zone 
agencies contracts up at least $2V2 
million for the past fiscal year, the 
number of bags of cement purchased 
provided a kev index: 127,680 for 1962 
compared with 78,300 for 1961. 

In accord with Panama Canal policy 
to purchase from Panama sources 
whenever possible when quality and 
prices of products are comparable, the 
dollars to Panama trend is continuing 

Added to this list most recently are 
paper bags and cellophane and part of 
the kerosene supply now is being bought 
in the neighboring Republic, with 
refinery products purchases expected to 
increase further. Panama's first petro- 
leum refinerv, built at a cost of $30 
million, opened this year and is deliver- 
ing petroleum products to oil compa- 
nies that have distribution facilities in 

Deliveries keep retail store unloading zones busy. 

the Canal Zone and throughout Panama. 

Not included in the solid gross pur- 
chases figures are items purchased 
through agents in Panama. These in- 
clude many groceries, housewares, major 
appliances, some toilet articles, cos- 
metics, stationery, and other consumer 

Two main factors are important in 
volume of agricultural produce Pan- 
ama Canal facilities acquire from the 

With this base, there's an assured 
minimum market if quality meets stand- 
ards. And if it meets standards, it also 
meets world standards for domestic 
outlets or export to other Latin Amer- 
ican countries and into the world 

Supply, processing, transport play vital roles to meet 
increasing demands. 

Further quality improvement is ex- 
pected with the Republic's farm-to- 
market road program being expanded. 
On-the-farm quality has met or sur- 
passed minimum standards in many 
produce lines, but the transport problem 
has curtailed the marketing field. 

Reef, cabbage, and tomatoes remain 
the big item purchases from Panama- 
nian sources in the food products lines. 

The expenditures by the Panama 
Canal and agencies located in the Zone 
made a notable contribution to the total 
Republic of Panama economic activity, 
which closed the last calendar year on 
a high level, showed a more than 
seasonal upturn at the start of this yeai 
and may have reached new highs 
through midyear. 

The new Panama City terminal 
marketing facility for fruits and vege- 
tables opened in April. It was built 
at a cost of $35,000, with $23,000 
worth of equipment financed by AID 
and another $29,250 worth of equip- 
ment ordered recently is being financed 
by AID funds. 

This facility is part of a joint agricul- 
tural marketing project directed toward 
the goals of improving distribution 
within the domestic market, supply- 
ing Canal Zone requirements, and 
developing export outlets. 

Among the larger contracts let were 
those for the Cardenas housing exten- 
sion, being handled by the Federal 
Aviation Agency for National Institute 
of Health, Middle America Research 
Unit, and for modification of hangars 
and to rehabilitate housing and barracks 
at Howard Field as a result of relocating 
some flying activities to that field from 
Albrook AFR. 


Camera Clubbers Americans 
V/ho Know The Americas 

WHEN IT COMES to "Americans 
knowing the peoples of the Americas," 
members of the Diablo Camera Club 
stand second to none. 

In its short 17-year history the Club 
has made so many field trips into 
Panama and air flights to neighboring 
countries that no one knows the actual 

Last year the club members spent 
intensive 3 and 4 day weekends in Gua- 
temala's jungle ruins at Tikal; Trinidad; 
Santa Marta, Colombia; Quito, Ecua- 
dor; San Andres Island (Colombian); 
and Christmas at Bogota. 

And every trip, proudly relates Club 
President Cecil Vockrodt, a military 
civilian employee, "was in a COPA 
plane (Compania Panamena de Avia- 
cion, S.A.) and every time the pilot was 
Mike' De Puv." Miguel De Puv and 
his popular wife, Roma, are honorarv 
members of the Club. Last August the 
President of COPA, Carlos Icaza, pre- 
sented the Club a special scroll for 

having shown 15 consecutive years of 
confidence in this well-known Panama- 
nian airway. 

Preston Minton, a Pacific side 
"Corral" employee, is the Club's unani- 
mously elected tour leader, bottle 
washer, wet nurse, and documentary 
clerk extraordinary. 

On a memorable trip to Manizales. 
Colombia, 3 years ago, he recalls wist- 
fully. "We arrived at the height of the 
coffee festival, but all our other arrange- 
ments fell through." Club members 
quickly divided into splinter groups, 
some to secure coffee and chowder, 
others to locate quarters and still others 
to get towels, linens, and mattresses. 
Minton recalls that through sheer luck 
a vacant house was found. It cost more 
than S170 for 3 days— and the place 
was really packed. 

(Manizales was one of the cities 
seriously damaged by the earthquakes 
that killed more than 30 persons in 
Colombia last July 31.) 

A somewhat similar experience witli 

Like salt goes with pepper, so the Diablo 
Camera Club flies with Miguel De Puv 
at the controls. The popular "Mike" of 
Compania Panamena de Aviacion (COPA) 
poses in front of a trusty Camera Club 
steed prior to a recent takeoff. 

accepting a 
scroll) during 
e far right is 


October 5. 1962 

tragic overtones was the flash flood that 
stranded the Club at Santa Marta, 
Colombia, a year ago last September. 
It washed out the town's railroad 
system, all bridges, and undermined the 
foundation of the hotel in which the 
members were staying. 

Since the members had bused from 
Barranquilla, they had to return there 
by plane. But not until Minton had 
cleared the Santa Marta airport runway 
of debris bv personally piloting a tractor 
and radioing Barranquilla for a DC-3 
shuttle service. He also set up a system 
of priorities so that Colombian doctors, 
who had been holding their national 
convention at Santa Marta, could fly out 
first to attend to operations they had 

While waiting for the evacuation. 
Club members manned the galleys in 
the hotel for the Club and other guests, 
boiled all the water (the water system 
had broken down) and used Minton's 
chlorine pills for the reassurance of all. 

Every place the Club has visited, 
proudly notes former president Charles 
McG. Brandl, Canal engineer in charge 
of the cut-widening project, it has been 
invited to return. 

Among some of the local field trips 
the Club has taken during the past year 
were visits to the Colon Free Zone 
where a talk was given by the Free 
Zone Director, Jose D. Bazan, who is 
Panama's Second Vice President; a tour 
of the Refineria Panama near Colon; 
a trip through the Panama Boston Com- 
pany's oleo plant in Panama City; and 
the annual visit to the Finca Bermejal 
of Eduardo Cucalon near Chepo. 

Mr. Cucalon and his wife, Delia, and 
the De Puns are the only honorary 
members of the Club, whose member- 
ship is limited to 150 persons living on 
the Canal Zone. 

Club members, who use only Panama- 
nian commercial vehicles for their local 
trips, even for jaunts as close as the 
National Museum in Panama City, have 
been to Costa Rica six times in 6 years. 
They know Ocu and downtown David 
like the palms of their hands. In Colom- 
bia a President of that nation has greeted 
them and thev have been guests at the 
private home of an ex-president twice. 
In fact, on a recent visit to Medellin. 
Colombia's second largest city, a plane 
load of high Colombian Government 
officials flew in from Bogota just to be 
with the group during one of its long 
weekend visits. 

The Club has visited Peru, Salvador, 
and Venezuela and has been to Jamaica, 
the Virgin Islands, and Curacao a 
number of times. It has been praised 
bv numerous foreign dignitaries as well 

A flash flood in Santa Marta, Colombia, didn't stop the Diablo shutterbugs even though 

it caught the city unawares and caused extensive damage, including the ruin of the hotel 

in which this picture was taken. Wading through the flooded dining room with a camera 

around his neck is Club president Cecil Vockrodt. 

as U.S. Embassy representatives as 
being Ambassadors of Good Will 

Since the Club departs from Tocii- 
men Airport, it flies under Panamanian 
documentation and it is rare for the 
Club members not to be met on arrival 
at foreign points bv the local Panama- 
nian Consul. Local hosts repeatedly tell 

Club members "We look forward to the 
return of our Panamanian friends." 

Last year the Canal Zone Club had 
the pleasure of playing host to the 
Medellin Camera Club. The Medellin 
visitors enjoyed the Canal Zone and 
Panama so much that some of them 
have made return flights to visit with 
their Diablo Camera Club friends. 

Members of the Medellin, Colombia, Camera Club recently visited the Isthmus as the 
guests of the Diablo Camera Club. The visitors pose for a picture upon their arrival at 

Tocumen Airport. 

The Panama Canal Review 



SKINDIVING is definitely not on the 
list of skills expected of a Federal 
geologist or engineer. But when the 
Canal found it necessary to study the 
design of a possible new reserve water 
supply for putting ships through the 
hilltops, two Engineering Division em- 
ployees donned masks, oxygen tanks, 
and fins for prowls around the bottom 
of Gatun Lake. 

Swimming among the algae and moss- 
festooned trunks of dead trees that were 
inundated when the lake filled up 50 
years ago. Engineering Geologist Robert 
H. Stew art and Soils Engineer Anthonv 
P. Mann saw with their own eyes the 
kind of earth that exists at various points 
along the proposed site for a big earth- 
and-rock dam for water storage. 

If built, the clam will add 44% per- 
cent to the Canal's present capacity to 
store water against the annual dry- 
season shortage. This will be the water- 
w a) s first reserve storage project since 
Madden Dam and Lake were built in 
the 1930's. 

The proposed dam would take 
perhaps 5 years to complete. But it 
could impound some 430,000 additional 
acre-feet of water. An acre-foot is a unit 
of 1 acre in area, 1 foot deep. The 
Canal now has usuable storage capacity 
of 445,000 acre-feet in Madden Lake, 

520,000 in Gatun-a total of 965,000 

The new dam could solve the prob- 
lem of having enough water to serve 
ship-transit demands for the foreseeable 

On the basis of what the skindiving 
revealed and mechanical tests including 
results of deep borings for earth and 

Proposed Dam 

Could Hike Water 

Storase 44 l A % 

rock samples, Geologist Stewart will be 
able to recommend the alignment for 
the dam. Specifications also will be pre- 
pared as to the dumping of spoil from 
other work plus material which must 
be specially excavated. The work would 
be done under contract. 

Still in the advanced-study stage, but 
approved in principle by Gov. Robert J. 
Fleming, Jr., and the Board of Directors, 
tentative plans call for an approximately 
2-mile long rock fill to be piled along 
a dog-leg course across the western arm 
of Gatun Lake, where it reaches deep 

into a sector of indented jungle shore- 
line and islands commonly known as 
the Trinidad area. 

The dam itself would be wholly 
within the Canal Zone, and the areas 
along which it would raise the water 
level by some 10 or 11 feet also are a 
part of the Zone. This would move the 
shoreline back between 50 and 100 feet 
in most places, a little more in others. 
Canal Zone jurisdiction extends inland 
from the banks of Gatun Lake in this 
area to a point 15 feet higher in altitude 
than the lake's normal height of 85 feet 
above sea level. 

Preliminary plans call for alignment 
across Guacha Island and much smaller 
Tern Island. Both islands are readily- 
visible from the main Canal channel 
between Gatun Locks and Barro 
Colorado Island— the wildlife preserve. 

Guacha Island would form the base 
of a combined single lock and spillway. 
Through this, passenger and garden 
produce launches, police, and fishing 
craft would be able to navigate readily 
into the western reaches of the lake just 
as they do now. 

There are few roads in the Trinidad 
area of the Republic of Panama. Beyond 
the shoreline of the lake live many Pan- 
amanian villagers and small farmers 
who now use the lake for access to the 

Unusual for a woman, but not at all phenomenal for Mrs. Joanne 
Allen, a Canal geologist, was an assignment on the drillboat to 
measure, inspect, and file for reference core samples of rock and 
earth brought up at Booby Island near the southern terminus of 
the proposed dam. Mrs. Allen earned her B.S. in geology at 
Kansas State University. She came to the Isthmus 3 years ago, 
is the mother of two boys. Assisting her with the samples is 
driller helper Jose Rios of Panama. 

After a preliminary underwater inspection of the nearby lake 
bottom, Robert H. Stewart, the Canal's geologist, doffed his 
skindiving gear to check findings with a map aboard the launch 
Shearwater, which was serving as a tender for the drill barge. 
Borings for soil core samples were being taken at a depth of 120 
feet. At a nearby location, borings will have to go down 250 feet. 


October 5. 1962 

C.atun boat landing en route to the 
Panamanian port city of Colon. This 
they would continue to do. 

The jungle-grown top of Tern Island 
has been partially cleared by Canal 
survey forces. It was formerly a hill and 
probably will be leveled off if it becomes 
part of the dam. 

The Dredging Division will employ 
a time-tried technique, using what has 
been called a "submarine bulldozer" to 
clear underwater stumps and trunks. 
A barge, weighted down with concrete 
pilings so that it rides 20 feet below its 
normal draft, would be pushed through 
the dead timber by a tug. Whatever this 
does not knock down or push over can 
be dynamited. 

Width of the storage dam at its base 
might vary from 500 to 1,000 feet on 
either side of its centerline, depending 
on further geological studies to find a 
solid base. 

Much already is known about what 
lies under the lake waters in this fairly 
hilly area. When glaciers were covering 

North America in the last Ice Age, the 
Isthmus was wider and stood much 
higher out of the sea than it does now. 
As the ice melted, the sea encroached. 
Then the rivers brought down muck 
and silt, depositing them in what had 
been the valleys to form swamp areas 
near sea level at many points. 

Geologists now must leam the depth 
and character of these deposits, parti- 
cularly those in an old geologic area in 
what was once a valley between Guacha 
Island and the mainland. 

Many of the problems foreseen in 
building the dam are not unique, though 
Canal experts believe the structure may 
be a "'first" in one respect. There is no 
record of a previous attempt to build 
a rock-fill dam under water. But Canal 
engineers think they can do it, despite 
the heavy flow from this end of the lake 
during seasonal downpours. Present 
plans contemplate a rock-fill dam 
that will be blanketed with earth for 

In this big rock-piling project, it is 

Survey crews recently cleared part of Guacha Island, which could be leveled off to become 

part of the proposed dam near its southern terminus. Spoil would be dumped to fill in the 

passage (right) between the island and the mainland. 

Soils Engineer Anthony P. Mann adjusts 

his skindiving equipment for a foray among 

the dead stumps on Garun Lake bottom to 

observe terrain conditions. 

planned to make maximum use of the 
spoil already loosened and ready for 
moving from Las Cascadas Reach and 
the material to be excavated under the 
new contract to widen the Canal "Cut" 
all the way to Gamboa. 

This rock spoil must go somewhere. 
By dumping it at the dam site, the 
Canal's need for a wider channel also 
would contribute to making sure there 
will be enough water storage capacitv 
to float all ships seeking transit during 
the next few decades. 

Are YOU a Delinquent? 

'THERE ARE 50 million vision delin- 
quents on the street," says the American 
Optometric Association, and this num- 
ber undoubtedlv includes many thou- 
sands of people wearing out of date 

With one-fourth of the population 
requiring vision care, treatment or cor- 
rection, business, industry, and school- 
work can't proceed at the best possible 
level of efficiency. Poor work, an adverse 
effect on the individual's overall health, 
and a tragically high incidence of acci- 
dents often are the result of vision 
defects. See page 19 for warning signs. 

The Panama Canal Review 


MORSE CODE, a skill which John A. 
Morales learned while in radio school 
in the Navy, is now being passed on to 
a group of young people. 

Although the Accounting Division 
employee says he is a bit rusty, Mr. 
Morales still is able to keep the attention 
of the students who gather around his 
dining room table every Tuesday and 
Thursday evening at 6. 

An average evening's class begins 
with a short recall session. "What is 'A'? 
'Z? 'K'? Send your name on the key." 
Then there is practice in receiving. For 
this purpose, Mr. Morales uses a record- 
ing of different letters in code. Students 
are expected to take down what the 
code represents. 

Classes are held for 8 weeks and the 
students aspire to a goal of five words 
per minute, sending and receiving. 

Try Hands 
Code Keys 

Successful completion of a course of 
this nature is required for the first class 
Hoy Scout rating and the speed of five 
words per minute entitles the Bov 
Scouts to a merit badge. Those who 
wish may go on to try for the novice 
"ham" radio license, which involves 
more technical radio knowledge in 
addition to skill in code. 

The first of three classes which Mr. 
Morales has started was held in the 
summer of 1961 with a group of 11 Boy- 
Scouts. His son, John, who now acts as 
an auxiliary instructor, began his training 
in this class. 

A recent class was a bit unusual, 
because for the first time two girls 
slipped in. The girls, Gail Harrison and 
Jeanette Morales, seemed to be keeping 
up with the lessons at least as well as 
the boys; at least they had as much fun. 


End of first grading period October 19 

Panama Independence Day (holiday) November 2 

Veterans Day (holiday) November 12 

Thanksgiving holidays (4 days) November 22-25 

End of second grading period December 7 

Christmas holidays (11 days) December 22— January 1 

End of third grading period January 25 

Washington's Birthday (holiday) February 22 

End of fourth grading period March 8 

Easter holidays (9 days) April 6-14 

End of fifth grading period April 26 

Memorial Day (holiday) May .30 

Commencement June 4 

End of sixth grading period June 5 

Schools close June 5 

Budding Morse Code operators get checked by instructor John Morales of the Accounting 

Division. From left to right seated are Ralph Stinson, Lars Morales, and Jeanette Morales. 

Standing are Harry Stinson, Mr. Morales, John Morales, Jr., and Gail Harrison. 


October 5, 1962 


(Continued from p. 3) 

Canal workers, Mr. Thatcher made 
every possible effort to obtain approval 
by the U.S. Congress of a law which 
was passed in 1944 giving disability 
retirement benefits to non-U. S. -citizen 
employees of the Panama Canal. This 
legislation has benefited thousands of 
Panamanians as well as a number of 
employees of other nationalities. 

The work done by Mr. Thatcher on 
behalf of the Isthmian community did 
not go unrecognized. During a meeting 
held July 30, 1930, the Federation 
for Highway Education unanimously 
approved a motion asking that former 
Gov. Harry Burgess of the Canal Zone 
give the name "Thatcher Highway" to 
the road between Balboa and Arraijan. 

Perhaps it was this eloquent demon- 
stration of public affection which 
inspired the U.S. Congress to pass 
Public Law 87-125 which gave the 
name of the well-known "Governor" to 
the magnificent bridge which unites the 
Americas, an action which has been 
termed by former Panama President 
Dr. Bicardo J. Alfaro an "act of justice 
and a well deserved tribute." 

A gesture of recognition was made 
by the residents of the town of Arraijan 
who gave Mr. Thatcher a parcel of land 
in that area in gratitude for the part he 
took in the development of the town. 
On his part, Mr. Thatcher has set aside 
this lot for the construction of a 
children's playground which has been 
named in his honor. 

The Government of Panama also has 
honored the distinguished Canal pioneer 
by presenting him the Order of Vasco 
Nunez de Balboa with plaque. Ecuador 
has given him the Order of Merit and 
the Order of the Eloy Alfaro Founda- 
tion. In 1930 he received the Order of 
Bolivar from Venezuela when he visited 
Caracas as a member of a committee 
which presented Venezuela a statue of 
Henry Clay. 

An enthusiastic promoter of Pan 
American ideals, Mr. Thatcher stated 
recently: "I have done whatever I could 
to promote good relations between 
Panama and the United States; I will 
always try to see that the Republic of 
Panama receives just treatment and 
I believe that I can depend on the good 
will of the Panamanian people." 

In addition to the honors which 
Mr. Thatcher has received from Pan- 
ama, Ecuador, an Venezuela, all proof 
of the high esteem in which he is held, 
he recently was presented the pen which 
President Kennedy used to sign the law 
naming the new bridge across the 
Panama Canal "Thatcher Ferry Bridge." 

TH€ 'WW HflV€ IT 


GOOD VISION is an important factor 
in preventing accidents at work, on the 
road, and at play. Emphasizing vision 
to all is a safety asset; therefore, good 
vision is now considered "a family 
affair." Adults and children must make 
the most of their eyesight by having 
an annual check-up. 

Neglecting youngsters' vision is in- 
excusable for parents who try to give 
their children everything they need for 
a successful future. At the same time, 
parents have an obligation to safeguard 
their own vision through eye correction 
and eye protection. 

Vision requirements change. The 
visual demands of modern life can't be 
compared to those that confronted our 
own grandparents. 

Work, reading, television, driving a 
car, all call for special requirements 
from the eyes. Demands can be summed 
up in six basic areas: Good distance 
acuity, depth perception, good fields 
of vision, good eye muscle balance, 
good near point vision, and good color 

A person doesn't have to be "in the 
dark" about visual abilities. You can 
test yourself in all six categories for 
indications that professional help is 

Eyes have good distance acuity when 
able to focus and see clearly singly and 
together for distance. 

How's depth perception? That's a 
question of judging correctly the dis- 
tance between oneself and other objects, 
even when both are in motion. 

You have a good field of vision if you 
can see over a large area on the horizon 
as well as up and down without moving 
your eyes. This includes seeing things 

moving in or out from the sides. 

Muscle balance means ability to focus 
the eyes simultaneously and with ease 
at a given object at varying distances. 

If one can see accurately and con- 
centrate on close detail for long periods 
of time without discomfort, near point 
is good. 

Color discrimination means the ability 
to identify colors and hues accurately. 

Other vision problems: 

Some people may move frequendy 
from areas of poor illumination to good 
lighting and vice versa. Can you adjust 
readily and see adequately under either 

How's your glare recovery? Driving 
along a highway at night, does 
vision return to normal efficiency in 
1 or 2 seconds after a car with glaring 
headlights has approached and passed? 

Admittedly, a do-it-yourself eye test 
is far from acceptable as a judge of 
whether vision is up to date or still in 
the "dark ages." 

A once-a-year visit to the optometrist 
is the modern way to safeguard eye 
health. Deficiencies do not develop in 
a few days or weeks. There is a gradual 
lessening of ability. The optometrist is 
the doctor who can detect a lapse in anv 
area of vision deficiency and direct its 

Perhaps the most inexcusable mistake 
is to be fitted with a pair of corrective 
eye glasses and continue to use them for 
years without re-examination. Not onlv 
work but play is affected. As work 
requirements change, and leisure time 
activities vary from year to year, correc- 
tive lenses should be brought up to date 
at the same pace. 









•62 '61 

248 258 
1990 2552(699) 


'62 '61 

13 12 

85 96(4) 

7948 14995 95 

( ) Locks Overhaul Injuries Included In total. 

The Panama Canal Review 



50 yearJ c4ao 

ROADS WERE being resurfaced in the 
Canal Zone 50 years ago and the Canal 
Zone Police were being reorganized, but 
there was little work for the traffic 
police. According to a note in the Canal 
Record there were 65 automobiles 
licensed to travel in the Canal Zone in 
1912. Of these, 14 were the property of 
residents of the Canal Zone and the 
remainder were owned by citizens of 
the Republic of Panama. All were pas- 
senger vehicles with the exception of a 
motor wagon used at Mount Hope and 
Cristobal. There were, in addition, 31 
motorcycles licensed. 

Plans for construction of the super- 
structure of the Atlantic terminal docks 
at Cristobal were being prepared in 
October 1912. The committee in charge 
recommended that in view of un- 
certainty existing as to the amount of 
freight to be handled at the Atlantic 
terminal after the completion of the 
Canal work, no cargo handling cranes 
or special unloading appliances were 
to be installed with the exception of 
unloading masts designed for holding 
blocks and falls. 

Total enrollment of the Canal Zone 
schools for the first week ending 
October 4, 1912 was 1,000. 

25 years cAao 

RECAUSE OF THE tense international 
situation 25 years ago this month, fears 
were expressed in Washington that rati- 
fication of the new treaty between the 
United States and Panama would be 
delayed. Objections to certain terms 
were reportedly being made by the 
U.S. War Department. 

Spy fever hit the Canal Zone as the 
Panama-American reported that two 
Japanese who had been guests at the 
Tivoli were seen taking pictures of the 
Pacific Locks, Madden Dam, and 
Caillard Cut. These pictures, the paper 
said "would be of the greatest military 
value to an enemy of the United States." 

Officials of the Panama Pacific Line 
announced that thev would remove 

their three large passenger vessels from 
the inter-coastal run through the Pan- 
ama Canal and put them on a new 
service between New York and the east 
coast of South America. A report from 
Washington, D.C. stated that the new 
regulations for Panama Canal tolls 
might have been one of the reasons for 
the proposed transfer. 

Meanwhile, Col. Glen E. Edgerton, 
Engineer of Maintenance, announced 
that construction had begun on the 
three new Panama Railroad Steamship 
Line vessels and a visiting U.S. Con- 
gressman said appropriations totaling 
$1 million were to be made for con- 
struction of quarters at the Fleet Air 
and Submarine Rases at Coco Solo. 

10 yearJ c4ao 

MORE THAN 1,200 Panama Canal 
employees met in Ralboa Stadium in 
October 1952, to protest what they 
called an "unjust and unreasonable in- 
crease in rent" on Canal Zone quarters. 
They asked for a congressional investiga- 
tion not only of rents but of the entire 
Panama Canal operation. Gov. J. S. 
Seybold refused a Central Labor Union 
request for a 6 month's extension on 
the Panama Canal rent increases but 
approved of the employees' collec- 
tive effort to seek reconsideration in 
Washington of the rental increase. 

During the same month, Ralboa 
Heights announced that approximately 

$5 million would be spent on the Canal's 
two principal housing projects on the 
Pacific side during the fiscal year quar- 
ters construction program. The plans 
called for the construction of units for 
168 families at the new Corozal town- 
site and along Empire Street in Ralboa. 

A new record for the number of com- 
mercial ships to transit the Canal in 
1 month was set in October 1952, when 
674 ships of 300 Panama Canal tons or 
more were put through the Canal. Tolls 
and ship tonnages also hit a new high. 

Meanwhile, Panama Canal authorities 
announced that steps were to be taken 
to increase the capacity of the Canal. 

One year c4ao 

AN INCREASE in medical assistance 
for disability relief annuitants of the 
Panama Canal was approved by the 
Board of Directors. The plan for further 
extending medical assistance to the 
annuitants called for expanding visiting 
nurse service, furnishing drugs free of 
cost when ordered by physicians and 
the employment of two part-time 

Preliminary work was started on a 
$927,000 contract providing for the 
construction of 100 quarters in the 
townsite of Pedro Miguel. The housing 
units are part of the replacement 
housing to be built in the Canal Zone 
as part of the Nine-Point Program of 
benefits to Panama. 

These are members of the Colombian Kart Club who made a clean sweep of the Labor 
Day Kart Championships in Ancon and contributed $200 to the United Fund. The sole girl 
on the team, Christiane Bigot, is third from the left. Her teammates were Mario Gomez, 
Victor Barreto, Edgar Cardenas, Mario Correa, and Elias Matroni. Gabriel Campuzano 
was head mechanic. All are from Bogota, Colombia. 


October 5, 1962 


(On the basis of total Federal Service) 


Balbino Caldito 

Elias A> Cj ron 



Valentine N. Gordon 


Lloyd W. Peterson 

Transportation Assistant 


Leon F. Small 
File Clerk 


William R. Dl 

Lock Operator 
Jerome Bennett 

Ronald D. Williams 

Launch Dispatcher 


Ralph K. SkinneT 

Staff Assistant to 
James L. Fulton 

Chief, Rates and Analysis 
Jack K. Campbell 

Vernon B. Berry 




Dock Maintenanceman 
Allan Toussaint 

Mario Torres 


Berta I. Quinn 

General Investigator 


Hiram Overall 

Police Sergeant 
Charles R. Bowen 



Joseph L. Gwinn 

Electrical Systems Inspector 
George Murray 

Navigational Aid Worker 
Edward B. Parker 

Central Office Repairman 
James W. Riley 

Central Office Repairman 
Armando Palmer 

Gilbert W. Card 

Eberto Tesis 

Manuel Pereira 

Coleridge Crawford 

George N. Rawlins 

David N. Benard 

Jesus Martinez 

Asphalt or Cement Worker 
Nelson O. Williar 

Leader Joiner 
Joseph Francis 

Launch Seaman 

Grace Belden 

Medical Typing Assistant 
Samuel M. Gaynor 

Meat Cutter Assistant 
George S. Robinson 
Hospital Laborer 

R. F. Huldtquist, Jr. 

Chief Engineer, Towboat 
or Ferry 
Thomas W. Gove 

William Nieves 

Towing Locomotive Operator 
Clifford A. Thompson 
Helper Lock Operator 
or Cer 
Ince i 
Oscar />. A/ingq 
Pjrffice Jt[i ord 

r Lock^ 
ensio Gutier) 
Maintenance Pa 1 
IlinHrn JmiM." 
Line Handler 
Rupert E. Belenfante 

Jose M. Quiroz 
Line Handler 
William H. Cox 

Ricardo Moran 

Maintenance Painter 
Alberto Alvarado 

Asphalt or Cement Worker 
Mauricio Carias 

Helper Marine Machinist 
Charles J. Palles 

Sheetmetal Worker 
Conrado Saldaiia 
Launch Seaman 

Vicente Lucena 

Leader Heavy Laborer 
Jose D. DeLeon 

Utility Worker 
Geraldine W. Allen 

Counter Attendant 
Oscar A. Landaverde 

Heavy Laborer 
Ruby R. Lynton 

Stock Control Clerk 
Lila Belen 

F. E. Thompson 

Jose Valladares 

Milk Plant Worker 
Clara Cox Pimento 

Stock Control Clerk 
Victor A. Marks 

Joseph Parks 

Dry Cleaning Presser 
Leonora W. Fearron 

Food Service Sales Checker 
Elexander Francis 

General Foreman Stockman 

Ivanhoe Donawa 

Water Service Man 
Ignacio Cordoba 

Railroad Trackman 
Melford L. Matthews 

F. Hinestroza 

Helper Electrician 
Wilfred Walker 

Cargo Marker 
Geraldo A. Myrie 

Truck Driver 
John M. Quinland 

Juan F. Estrada 

Helper Automotive Mechanic 

The Panama Canal Review 



EMPLOYEES who were promoted or 
transferred between August 5 and Sep- 
tember 5 are listed here. Within-grade 
promotions and job reclassifications are 
not listed: 


Annie R. Rathgeber, from Clerk-Typist, 
License Section, to Secretary (Typing), 
Panama Canal Information Office. 

Catherine I. Oliver, from Clerk-Stenog- 
rapher to Secretary (Stenography). 


Frank Thomas, from Chauffeur, Gorgas 
Hospital, to Detention Guard, Police 

Ruben H. Austin, Clerk-Typist, from Main- 
tenance Division to Fire Division. 

Patricia P. Bonnifield, from Clerk-Typist, 
Gorgas Hospital, to Library Assistant, 
Canal Zone Library. 

Postal Division 
William M. Jensen, Lealand A. Larrison, 

from Finance Branch Superintendent to 

Relief Supervisor, Balboa. 
Donald L. Nolan, from Theater Doorman, 

Supply Division, to Substitute Window 


Division of Schools 
Helen M. Starr, from Elementary School 

Teacher-Principal to Elementary School 

Ruth H. Amedee, from Substitute Teacher, 

Latin American Schools, to Elementary 

Teacher, Latin American School. 
Alice M. James, from Clerk, Supply Divi- 
sion, to Clerk-Typist. 
Ann B. Kennon, from Theater Usher, 

Supply Division, to Recreation Specialist. 
Lanty Patrick, from Laborer Cleaner to 

Leader Laborer Cleaner. 

Heman A. Sedda, from Cartographic Com- 
pilation Aid to Surveying Technician, 
Engineering Division. 
Kenneth F. Brassel, from Pipefitter, Indus- 
trial Division, to Plumbing Inspector, 
Contract and Inspection Division. 

Electrical Division 

Charles J. Holmes, from Construction 
Inspector (General), Contract and In- 
spection Division, to Shift Engineer 

Milton M. Lacroix, Robert J. Roy, from 
Lock Operator Machinist, Locks Divi- 
sion, to Shift Engineer (Mechanical). 

Domingo D. Hinds, Paul W. Kramer, Jr.. 
from Marine Machinist, Industrial Divi- 
sion, to Shift Engineer (Mechanical). 

Ruth E. Clement, from Clerk-Typist to 
Accounts Maintenance Clerk. 

Julio B. Pinillo, from Palancaman to 
M aintenanceman. 

Alfred Leacock, from Helper Cable Splicer 
to Maintenanceman Distribution Systems. 

Viberto B. Weekes, Warehouseman, from 
Supply Division. 

Basil C. De Sousa, from Laborer Cleaner 
to Helper Maintenance Machinist. 

Vernon R. Roberts, from Utility Worker. 
Supply Division, to Laborer Cleaner. 

August 5 through September 5 

Dredging Division 

Edward J. Russell, Jr., from Supervisory 
Typing Clerk, Locks Division, to Prop- 
erty' and Supply Clerk. 

Manuel A. Richard, from Floating Plant 
Fireman to Floating Plant Water Tender. 

Murphy Robinson, from Seaman to Leader 

Patricio Martinez, Luther B. Ward, from 
Launch Seaman to Seaman. 

Fidencio Echaverra, Sotero Garcia, from 
Boatman to Launch Seaman. 

Sidney O. Beckford, Humberto E. Santa- 
maria, from Boatman to Seaman. 

Dalton R. Ferdinand, from Helper Marine 
Machinist to Floating Plant Fireman. 

Claud A. Morant, from General Helper to 

Maintenance Division 

Albert H. Plumer, from Leader Refrigera- 
tion and Air Conditioning Mechanic to 
Lead Foreman, Refrigeration and Air 

John H. Childress, from Refrigeration and 
Air Conditioning Mechanic to Leader 
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning 

James R. McCarrick, from Towing Loco- 
motive Operator, Locks Division, to 
Sheetmetal Worker. 

Dawson G. Jolley, from Work Orders Clerk 
to Accounts Maintenance Clerk. 

Isidro Nogueira, from Heavy Truck Driver 
to Electrical Equipment Repairman. 

Harry A. Jones, Truck Driver, from Supply 


Cecil A. Springer, from General Medical 
Supply Clerk to Supervisory Medical 
Supply Clerk, Coco Solo Hospital. 

Bias Romero, from Laborer, Maintenance 
Division, to Heavy Pest Control Laborer. 
Division of Sanitation. 

Gorgas Hospital 

Dr. Leo P. Biese, from Medical Officer 
(General Medicine and Surgery), to 
Medical Officer (General Practice). 

Dolores Espinosa, from Staff Nurse (Oper- 
ating Room), to Nurse Supervisor (Oper- 
ating Room). 

Mary Basso, Elizabeth M. Hayden, Irene 
A. Sandberg, from Staff Nurse to Staff 
Nurse (Medicine and Surgery). 

Lloyd M. Tait, from File Clerk to Clerk. 

Corozal Hospital 

Kathleen I. M. Nelson, from Nurse Super- 
visor (Psychiatry), to Director of Nursing. 

Gloria J. Hallett,' from Head Nurse (Psy- 
chiatry), to Nurse Supervisor (Psychiatry). 

Navigation Division 

Madeleine M. Deraps, from Stock Control 
Clerk, Industrial Division, to Time- 

Jaroth E. Archibald, Theodore A. Brath- 
waite, Victor A. Harrison, Albert S. 
Hunter, Willesty Mitchell, from Launch 
Seaman to Launch Operator. 

Barrington A. Smith, from Seaman to 
Launch Operator. 

Albert A. Waisome, from Heavy Laborer 
to Seaman. 

Prince M. Grant, from Heavy Laborer to 

Locks Division 

George C. Scheibe, from Lead Foreman, 

Lock Operations, to General Foreman, 

Lock Operations. 
Robert T. Thomas, from Leader Lock 

Operator Electrician to Lead Foreman 

Locks Control House. 
Leon S. Fishbough, from Lock Operator 

Machinist to Leader Lock Operator 

William B. Redmond, Russell V. Severance, 

from Lock Operator Electrician to Leader 

Lock Operator Electrician. 
Oliver G. Paterson, from Towing Loco- 
motive Operator to Lock Operator 

Edward W. Kirby, from Guard to Towing 

Locomotive Operator. 
Upton W. Naron, from Substitute Window 

Clerk, Postal Division, to Towing Loco- 
motive Operator. 
Cyril A. David, from Painter to Leader 

Juan A. Allen, from Toolroom Attendant 

to Clerk. 
Benjamin Jemmonrt, from School Bus 

Driver, Motor Transportation Division, 

to Timekeeper. 
Rodolfo Ayarza, Gregorio Piterson, from 

Line Handler to Helper Lock Operator. 
Roberto McDonald, Virgilio Vega, from 

Deckhand to Line Handler. 
Jesus Becker, Leonard J. Blychanton, from 

Utilitv Worker, Supply Division, to Line 

Jose D. Romero, from Laborer Cleaner, 

Community Services Division, to Line 

Marvin K. Davis, from Packager, Supply 

Division, to Line Handler. 

Industrial Division 

Anastasio Sogandares, from Planner and 

Estimator to Supervisory Planner and 

Dennis A. Gilbert, from Purchasing Agent 

to Planner and Estimator. 
Ralph E. Leathers, from Maintenance 

Machinist to Inspector (Elevators and 



Duane M. Perkins, from Supervisory EAM 
Project Planner, Payroll and Machine 
Accounting Branch, to Digital Computer 
Systems Analyst, Accounting Policies 
and Procedures Staff. 

Robert W. Childers, from EAM Project 
Planner to Supervisory EAM Project 
Planner, Payroll and Machine Account- 
ing Branch. 

Robert K. Hanna, from Accounting Tech- 
nician to Accountant, Accounting Divi- 


James O. DesLondes, from Administrative 
Services Officer, Office of Director, to 
General Supply Officer (Superintendent, 
Storehouse Branch), Supply Division 
Storehouse Branch. 

Earl W. Sears, from Administrative Services 
Assistant, Community Services Division, 
Office of the Chief, to Administrative 
Services Officer, Office of the Director. 


October 5, 1962 

Supply Division 

Joseph B. Burgoon, from Lead Foreman 
(Dry Cleaning), to Laundry and Dry 
Cleaning Plant Superintendent. 

Patna L. Brown, from Retail Store Super- 
visor to Assistant Commissary Store 

Seabert Haynes, from Sales Section Head 
to Retail Store Supervisor. 

Bobby J. Stokes, from Guard, Locks Divi- 
sion, to Service Center Supervisor. 

George Taylor, from Leader Heavy 
Laborer to Leader Scrap Materials 

William A. Holder, from Warehouseman to 

Erskine D. Clinton, from Counter Attend- 
ant to Truck Driver. 

Allan R. Ellis, from Utility Worker to Sales 

Cyntia A. Ellis, from Utility Worker to 
Counter Attendant. 

Clarence A. Tomlinson, from Laborer 
Cleaner to Warehouseman. 

Alfredo A. Gale, from Heavy Laborer to 

Eduardo Osborne, from Laborer Cleaner 
and Special Waiter to General Helper 
and Special Waiter. 

Terrell C. Deakins, from Theater Usher to 
Theater Doorman. 

Sylvia G. Best, from Car Hop to Counter 

Ernesto A. Harrison, from Pinsetter to 
Utility Worker. 

Joseph Higgs, from Package Boy to Utility 

Arthur M. Butcher, from Package Boy to 
Laborer Cleaner. 

Frederick D. Simmons, from Bus Boy to 
Utility Worker. 

Alfred Davidson, from Laborer Cleaner to 
Utility Worker. 

Angel Molinar, from Laborer, Dredging 
Division, to Dairy Worker. 

Manuel Caballeros, from Laborer, Main- 
tenance Division, to Heavy Laborer. 

Community Services Division 

Francisco Villarreal, from Laborer to 

Silvio Gallardo, from Laborer to Grounds 

Maintenance Equipment Operator. 
Terencio Forbes, Laborer, from Dredging 



Herman V. Cameron, from Truck Driver 
to School Bus Driver. 

Terminals Division 

Charles T. Francis, from Winchman to 

Leader Ship Stevedore. 
Tolo Singh, from Helper Electrician to 

Daniel A. Viafora, from Cargo Marker to 

File Clerk. 

Railroad Division 

William R. Graham, from Supervisory 
Administrative Services Assistant to Ad- 
ministrative Services Officer. 

Enrique Riviere, from High Lift Truck 
Operator, to Freight Clerk. 

OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not 

involve changes of title follow: 

Earl F. Unruh, Director of Posts, Postal 

Edna T. Karpinski, Director of Nursing, 
Coco Solo Hospital. 

Raymon A. Nesbitt, Admeasurer, Naviga- 
tion Division. 

L. Sybil Riesch, Nurse Supervisor (General 
Medical and Surgical Hospital), Gorgas 

Merlin B. Yocum, Supervisory Cargo 
Checking Officer, Terminals Division. 

Paul F. Dooley, Marine Traffic Controller, 
Navigation Division. 

Betty R. Olsen, Time, Leave, and Payroll 
Clerk, Accounting Division. 

Joan R. Cartotto, Clerk-Stenographer, 
Office of the Director, Engineering and 
Construction Bureau. 

Virginia C. McCue, Library Assistant, 
Canal Zone Library. 

Ruthwin Samuels, Retail Store Supervisor, 
Supply Division. 

Sidney Brandford, Clerk, Navigation Divi- 

Isidro Cruz, Jorge Hernandez, Benito 
Lucero, Jos£ D. Pe>ez, Gregorio Ruiz, 
Facundo Villarreal, Surveying Aid, En- 
gineering Division. 

Eric C. Henry, Alberto Robinson, Victor 
E. Waite, Utility Worker, Supply Divi- 

Hour-per-Ship Saved 

IN ANOTHER Canal improvement, all 
hands working together have been able 
to cut the average time a transiting ship 
spends in Canal Zone waters by a full 
hour. It's 15.5 hours now versus 16.5 
hours last year. One hour saved will not 
make a voyage, but they all add up 
to better service for world shipping. 

It also represents a possible saving of 
$50 to $100 an hour in vessel operating 
costs. With more than 1,000 transits 
being made by ocean-going vessels 
annually, an estimated total savings of 
$1 million by Canal users is possible, 
assuming an average vessel operating 
cost of $100 per hour. 

Lock Walls Pared Down 

A TICKLISH nocturnal job done bv 
Canal divers along the concrete approach 
walls at Pedro Miguel Locks has been 
completed as part of the long-range 
plan to improve the waterway's capa- 
bility of handling larger ships. The 
broad-at-the-bottom slopes, or "Batters," 
of the locks walls have been cut back 
along their entire 75 feet. The batters 
previously interfered with deep-draft 


RETIREMENT certificates were pre- 
sented at the end of August to the 
employees listed below, with their posi- 
tions at time of retirement and years 
of Canal service: 

James F. Burgoon, Laundry and Dry Clean- 
ing Plant Superintendent, Supply Divi- 
sion; 24 years, 4 months, 15 days. 

James H. Burns, Chief Engineer, Towboat 
or Ferry, Navigation Division; 21 years, 
4 months, 21 days. 

Antonio Canizales, Leader Heavy Laborer, 
Navigation Division; 32 years, 5 months, 
23 days. 

Percy Cobham, Leader Dock Stevedore, 
Terminals Division; 47 years, 2 months 
22 days. 

Allan Daniels, Shipment Clerk, Railroad 
Division; 37 years, 8 months, 15 days. 

Mrs. Frances F. Fears, Elementary and 
Secondary School Teacher, Division of 
Schools; 11 years, 10 months, 21 days. 

Walter N. Grant, Deckhand, Supply Divi- 
sion; 41 years, 3 months, 3 days. 

Miss Dorothy M. Hall, Secretary Stenog- 
rapher, Dredging Division; 28 years, 
4 months. 

William D. Hardie, Supervisory Manage- 
ment Technician, Administrative Branch; 
32 years, 9 months, 12 days. 

Joseph P. Hawthorne, Towing Locomotive 
Operator, Locks Division; 28 years, 
6 months, 28 days. 

Mesias P. Lewis, Laborer Cleaner, Motor 
Transporation Division; 21 years, 2 
months, 11 days. 

Watkin H. Lindsay, Bookbinder, Printing 
Plant, Administrative Branch; 39 years, 
1 month, 11 days. 

Harry J. Linker, Shift Engineer, Electrical 
Division; 22 years, 1 month, 20 days. 

Roberto Martinez, Utility Worker, Supply 
Division; 19 years, 1 month, 26 days. 

Francisco Martinez R., Heavy Laborer, 
Communitv Services Division; 20 years, 
18 days. 

William B. Newball, Stevedore, Terminals 
Division; 4 years, 4 months, 7 days. 

Mrs. Nye C. Norris, Personnel Clerk, 
Employee and Placement Branch; 18 
years, 10 monhs. 

Ferdinand L. Ottey, Chauffeur, Motor 
Transportation Division; 47 years, 6 

Juan Padilla, Laborer, Community Service 
Division; 13 years, 10 months, 1 day. 

Hubert S. Robinson, Stockman, Supply 
Division; 35 years, 3 months, 25 days. 

Frederick C. Rose, Chief Engineer, Tow- 
boat or Ferry, Navigation Division; 32 
years, 3 months, 13 days. 

Jagat Singh, Stevedore, Terminals Division; 
31 years, 2 months, 20 days. 

Eduardo A. Soto, Clerk, Railroad Division; 
25 years, 5 months, 17 days. 

Beresford S. Tompson, Sales Clerk, Supply 
Division; 33 years, 9 months, 13 days. 

Walter Wagner, Chief Power System Dis- 
patcher, Electrical Division; 25 years, 
6 months, 22 days. 
James E. Walker, Foreman, Transmission 
Lines, Electrical Division; 21 years, 10 
months, 12 davs. 

The Panama Canal Review 



Trailer Ship Service 

A NEW TYPE of cargo ship, carrying 
cargo loaded in 35-foot trailers, passed 
through the Canal during September on 
its maiden voyage inaugurating a new 
intercoastal trailer service. The ship 
was the U.S. flag SS Elizabeth/port 
which was en route from New Jersey 
to Los Angeles and San Francisco. The 
voyage was to take 14 days. The 
Elizabethport will make regular trips 
through the Panama Canal on her inter- 
coastal lim and soon will be joined by 
a sistership, the San Juan. 

Her owners, Sea-Land Service, Inc., 
have announced that by the end of this 
\ car there will be four jumbo trailer- 
ships on this service. The trailers carry- 
ing the cargo are loaded and unloaded 
by huge gantrv cranes which are part 
of each vessel's superstructure. A trailer 
can be unloaded and replaced by 
a new one in an average of 4 minutes. 
Andrews & Co. act as agents for the line 
at the Canal. 


1961 1962 

Commercial 934 950 

U.S. Government 25 16 

Free 6 6 

Total 965 972 


Commercial $4,751,586 $4,929,238 

U.S. Government. 117,107 79,713 

Total... $4,868,693 $5,008,951 


Commercial . . . 5,664,080 5,168,760 

U.S. Government. 159,618 91,809 

Free 21,756 47.547 

Total... 5,845,454 5,308,116 

'Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small. 
"Cargo figures are in long tons 

Safety Award 

THE SHIP Safety Achievement Citation 
of Merit, awarded jointly by the Marine 
Section of the American National Safetv 

Sea-going hopper dredge due in January. 

Council and the American Merchant 
Marine Institute, was presented to the 
States Marine Line cargo ship Beaver 
State recently. The award was in recog- 
nition of the part taken by the officers 
and members of the crew in the rescue 
of survivers of the ill-fated Pacific 
Seafarer January 15, 1961. The rescue 
was made at sea about 15 miles north 
of Cristobal under difficult weather con- 
ditions. The Beaver State is a regular 
customer of the Panama Canal. 

New Maersk Liner 

THE LATEST addition to the blue- 
hulled Maersk fleet made its maiden 
voyage through the Canal recently. It 
was the MS Thomas Maersk, built in 
Denmark for the New York to U.S. 
west coast and Far East trade. The 
modern air-conditioned cargo liner has 
been built to cater to all types of special 
cargo and is equipped with such things 
as strong rooms, silk rooms, reefer 
chambers, and deep tanks for storage of 
vegetable oil, liquid latex, and molasses. 

C. B. Fenton & Co., agents for the 
Maersk Line here, announced that 
the ship will join the Line's list of 
regular Canal customers and has 
accommodations for 12 passengers. 

Dredging Assistance 

Division will get an assist during the 
coming dry season from the sea-going 
hopper dredge Harding, which will be 
sent to the Isthmus in January by the 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 

The dredge will work in Gaillard Cut 
for approximately 3 months to assist 
Dredging Division forces in the clear- 
ing of material which was part of the 
cut-widening work in that area. 

Built bv the Corps of Engineers in 
1939, the Harding is named for former 
Canal Zone Governor Chester Harding, 
who followed Governor George W. 
Goethals as Governor and served here 
from 1917 to 1921. It is 308.2 feet in 
length, has a beam of 56 feet, and a 
capacity of 2,500 cubic yards. 


October 5, 1962 

Date Due 



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